autoload-psr规范代码

大家都知道,当我们想在文件A中使用文件B中的某个类或方法时,必然需要将文件B通过include或者require等函数或语句引进来。为此不知道PHP哪个版本中出现了个魔术方法__autoload(),这个函数将会在创建一个对象的时候自动调用,所以我们只需要在__autoload()函数中写入类似于下面的代码就可以保证,使用什么就包含什么。
class Example(){
    function __autoload($className){
        require $className.'.php';
    }
}
但是当项目越来越大,文件越来越多,类越来越混乱的时候,单单通过require和include的方式就会感到疲倦不堪,你可能会说只要都是用include_once或者require_once就可以保证只需引入一次,这样就能保证文件引入不会重复了,但如果有好的方式实现干嘛不用呢?为此出现了如Namespace和spl_autoload_register()等方式来更好做好PHP的autoload工作。

而目前通过composer来进行包管理工作时也将自动加载做到了通用化与自动化,所以来看下composer是如何来进行autoload的。

composer典型的autoload目录结构
D03AAD3F-0B24-49A2-8C2F-1A0021383009

通常自动加载都是从require 'autoload.php';开始的,下面来看composer的类自动加载过程。

1.autoload.php

<?php
// autoload.php @generated by Composer
require_once __DIR__ . '/composer' . '/autoload_real.php';
return ComposerAutoloaderInitd372782b3e1f4bbef6a945ee27441d36::getLoader();

2.autoload_real.php

<?php

// autoload_real.php @generated by Composer

class ComposerAutoloaderInitd372782b3e1f4bbef6a945ee27441d36
{
    private static $loader;
    public static function loadClassLoader($class)
    {
        if ('Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader' === $class) {
            require __DIR__ . '/ClassLoader.php';
        }
    }
    public static function getLoader()
    {
        if (null !== self::$loader) {
            return self::$loader;
        }
        /*
            首先自动加载ClassLoader类,并实例化
        */
        spl_autoload_register(array('ComposerAutoloaderInitd372782b3e1f4bbef6a945ee27441d36', 'loadClassLoader'), true, true);
        self::$loader = $loader = new \Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader();
        spl_autoload_unregister(array('ComposerAutoloaderInitd372782b3e1f4bbef6a945ee27441d36', 'loadClassLoader'));
        /*
            加载使用命名空间的类
        */
        $map = require __DIR__ . '/autoload_namespaces.php';
        foreach ($map as $namespace => $path) {
            $loader->set($namespace, $path);
        }
        /*
            加载使用最新版autoload的Psr4
        */
        $map = require __DIR__ . '/autoload_psr4.php';
        foreach ($map as $namespace => $path) {
            $loader->setPsr4($namespace, $path);
        }
        /*
            获得类的Map数组,然后spl_autoload_register
        */
        $classMap = require __DIR__ . '/autoload_classmap.php';
        if ($classMap) {
            $loader->addClassMap($classMap);
        }
        $loader->register(true);

        return $loader;
    }
}

function composerRequired372782b3e1f4bbef6a945ee27441d36($file)
{
    require $file;
}

ClassLoader类是composer自动加载的核心

<?php

/*
 * This file is part of Composer.
 *
 * (c) Nils Adermann <naderman@naderman.de>
 *     Jordi Boggiano <j.boggiano@seld.be>
 *
 * For the full copyright and license information, please view the LICENSE
 * file that was distributed with this source code.
 */

namespace Composer\Autoload;

/**
 * ClassLoader implements a PSR-0 class loader
 *
 * See https://github.com/php-fig/fig-standards/blob/master/accepted/PSR-0.md
 *
 *     $loader = new \Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader();
 *
 *     // register classes with namespaces
 *     $loader->add('Symfony\Component', __DIR__.'/component');
 *     $loader->add('Symfony',           __DIR__.'/framework');
 *
 *     // activate the autoloader
 *     $loader->register();
 *
 *     // to enable searching the include path (eg. for PEAR packages)
 *     $loader->setUseIncludePath(true);
 *
 * In this example, if you try to use a class in the Symfony\Component
 * namespace or one of its children (Symfony\Component\Console for instance),
 * the autoloader will first look for the class under the component/
 * directory, and it will then fallback to the framework/ directory if not
 * found before giving up.
 *
 * This class is loosely based on the Symfony UniversalClassLoader.
 *
 * @author Fabien Potencier <fabien@symfony.com>
 * @author Jordi Boggiano <j.boggiano@seld.be>
 */
class ClassLoader
{
    // PSR-4
    private $prefixLengthsPsr4 = array();
    private $prefixDirsPsr4 = array();
    private $fallbackDirsPsr4 = array();

    // PSR-0
    private $prefixesPsr0 = array();
    private $fallbackDirsPsr0 = array();

    private $useIncludePath = false;
    private $classMap = array();

    private $classMapAuthoritative = false;

    public function getPrefixes()
    {
        if (!empty($this->prefixesPsr0)) {
            return call_user_func_array('array_merge', $this->prefixesPsr0);
        }

        return array();
    }

    public function getPrefixesPsr4()
    {
        return $this->prefixDirsPsr4;
    }

    public function getFallbackDirs()
    {
        return $this->fallbackDirsPsr0;
    }

    public function getFallbackDirsPsr4()
    {
        return $this->fallbackDirsPsr4;
    }

    public function getClassMap()
    {
        return $this->classMap;
    }

    /**
     * @param array $classMap Class to filename map
     */
    public function addClassMap(array $classMap)
    {
        if ($this->classMap) {
            $this->classMap = array_merge($this->classMap, $classMap);
        } else {
            $this->classMap = $classMap;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Registers a set of PSR-0 directories for a given prefix, either
     * appending or prepending to the ones previously set for this prefix.
     *
     * @param string       $prefix  The prefix
     * @param array|string $paths   The PSR-0 root directories
     * @param bool         $prepend Whether to prepend the directories
     */
    public function add($prefix, $paths, $prepend = false)
    {
        if (!$prefix) {
            if ($prepend) {
                $this->fallbackDirsPsr0 = array_merge(
                    (array) $paths,
                    $this->fallbackDirsPsr0
                );
            } else {
                $this->fallbackDirsPsr0 = array_merge(
                    $this->fallbackDirsPsr0,
                    (array) $paths
                );
            }

            return;
        }

        $first = $prefix[0];
        if (!isset($this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix])) {
            $this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix] = (array) $paths;

            return;
        }
        if ($prepend) {
            $this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix] = array_merge(
                (array) $paths,
                $this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix]
            );
        } else {
            $this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix] = array_merge(
                $this->prefixesPsr0[$first][$prefix],
                (array) $paths
            );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Registers a set of PSR-4 directories for a given namespace, either
     * appending or prepending to the ones previously set for this namespace.
     *
     * @param string       $prefix  The prefix/namespace, with trailing '\\'
     * @param array|string $paths   The PSR-0 base directories
     * @param bool         $prepend Whether to prepend the directories
     *
     * @throws \InvalidArgumentException
     */
    public function addPsr4($prefix, $paths, $prepend = false)
    {
        if (!$prefix) {
            // Register directories for the root namespace.
            if ($prepend) {
                $this->fallbackDirsPsr4 = array_merge(
                    (array) $paths,
                    $this->fallbackDirsPsr4
                );
            } else {
                $this->fallbackDirsPsr4 = array_merge(
                    $this->fallbackDirsPsr4,
                    (array) $paths
                );
            }
        } elseif (!isset($this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix])) {
            // Register directories for a new namespace.
            $length = strlen($prefix);
            if ('\\' !== $prefix[$length - 1]) {
                throw new \InvalidArgumentException("A non-empty PSR-4 prefix must end with a namespace separator.");
            }
            $this->prefixLengthsPsr4[$prefix[0]][$prefix] = $length;
            $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix] = (array) $paths;
        } elseif ($prepend) {
            // Prepend directories for an already registered namespace.
            $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix] = array_merge(
                (array) $paths,
                $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix]
            );
        } else {
            // Append directories for an already registered namespace.
            $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix] = array_merge(
                $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix],
                (array) $paths
            );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Registers a set of PSR-0 directories for a given prefix,
     * replacing any others previously set for this prefix.
     *
     * @param string       $prefix The prefix
     * @param array|string $paths  The PSR-0 base directories
     */
    public function set($prefix, $paths)
    {
        if (!$prefix) {
            $this->fallbackDirsPsr0 = (array) $paths;
        } else {
            $this->prefixesPsr0[$prefix[0]][$prefix] = (array) $paths;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Registers a set of PSR-4 directories for a given namespace,
     * replacing any others previously set for this namespace.
     *
     * @param string       $prefix The prefix/namespace, with trailing '\\'
     * @param array|string $paths  The PSR-4 base directories
     *
     * @throws \InvalidArgumentException
     */
    public function setPsr4($prefix, $paths)
    {
        if (!$prefix) {
            $this->fallbackDirsPsr4 = (array) $paths;
        } else {
            $length = strlen($prefix);
            if ('\\' !== $prefix[$length - 1]) {
                throw new \InvalidArgumentException("A non-empty PSR-4 prefix must end with a namespace separator.");
            }
            $this->prefixLengthsPsr4[$prefix[0]][$prefix] = $length;
            $this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix] = (array) $paths;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Turns on searching the include path for class files.
     *
     * @param bool $useIncludePath
     */
    public function setUseIncludePath($useIncludePath)
    {
        $this->useIncludePath = $useIncludePath;
    }

    /**
     * Can be used to check if the autoloader uses the include path to check
     * for classes.
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function getUseIncludePath()
    {
        return $this->useIncludePath;
    }

    /**
     * Turns off searching the prefix and fallback directories for classes
     * that have not been registered with the class map.
     *
     * @param bool $classMapAuthoritative
     */
    public function setClassMapAuthoritative($classMapAuthoritative)
    {
        $this->classMapAuthoritative = $classMapAuthoritative;
    }

    /**
     * Should class lookup fail if not found in the current class map?
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function isClassMapAuthoritative()
    {
        return $this->classMapAuthoritative;
    }

    /**
     * Registers this instance as an autoloader.
     *
     * @param bool $prepend Whether to prepend the autoloader or not
     */
    public function register($prepend = false)
    {
        spl_autoload_register(array($this, 'loadClass'), true, $prepend);
    }

    /**
     * Unregisters this instance as an autoloader.
     */
    public function unregister()
    {
        spl_autoload_unregister(array($this, 'loadClass'));
    }

    /**
     * Loads the given class or interface.
     *
     * @param  string    $class The name of the class
     * @return bool|null True if loaded, null otherwise
     */
    public function loadClass($class)
    {
        if ($file = $this->findFile($class)) {
            includeFile($file);

            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Finds the path to the file where the class is defined.
     *
     * @param string $class The name of the class
     *
     * @return string|false The path if found, false otherwise
     */
    public function findFile($class)
    {
        // work around for PHP 5.3.0 - 5.3.2 https://bugs.php.net/50731
        if ('\\' == $class[0]) {
            $class = substr($class, 1);
        }

        // class map lookup
        if (isset($this->classMap[$class])) {
            return $this->classMap[$class];
        }
        if ($this->classMapAuthoritative) {
            return false;
        }

        $file = $this->findFileWithExtension($class, '.php');

        // Search for Hack files if we are running on HHVM
        if ($file === null && defined('HHVM_VERSION')) {
            $file = $this->findFileWithExtension($class, '.hh');
        }

        if ($file === null) {
            // Remember that this class does not exist.
            return $this->classMap[$class] = false;
        }

        return $file;
    }

    private function findFileWithExtension($class, $ext)
    {
        // PSR-4 lookup
        $logicalPathPsr4 = strtr($class, '\\', DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) . $ext;

        $first = $class[0];
        if (isset($this->prefixLengthsPsr4[$first])) {
            foreach ($this->prefixLengthsPsr4[$first] as $prefix => $length) {
                if (0 === strpos($class, $prefix)) {
                    foreach ($this->prefixDirsPsr4[$prefix] as $dir) {
                        if (file_exists($file = $dir . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . substr($logicalPathPsr4, $length))) {
                            return $file;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // PSR-4 fallback dirs
        foreach ($this->fallbackDirsPsr4 as $dir) {
            if (file_exists($file = $dir . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . $logicalPathPsr4)) {
                return $file;
            }
        }

        // PSR-0 lookup
        if (false !== $pos = strrpos($class, '\\')) {
            // namespaced class name
            $logicalPathPsr0 = substr($logicalPathPsr4, 0, $pos + 1)
                . strtr(substr($logicalPathPsr4, $pos + 1), '_', DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR);
        } else {
            // PEAR-like class name
            $logicalPathPsr0 = strtr($class, '_', DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) . $ext;
        }

        if (isset($this->prefixesPsr0[$first])) {
            foreach ($this->prefixesPsr0[$first] as $prefix => $dirs) {
                if (0 === strpos($class, $prefix)) {
                    foreach ($dirs as $dir) {
                        if (file_exists($file = $dir . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . $logicalPathPsr0)) {
                            return $file;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // PSR-0 fallback dirs
        foreach ($this->fallbackDirsPsr0 as $dir) {
            if (file_exists($file = $dir . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . $logicalPathPsr0)) {
                return $file;
            }
        }

        // PSR-0 include paths.
        if ($this->useIncludePath && $file = stream_resolve_include_path($logicalPathPsr0)) {
            return $file;
        }
    }
}

/**
 * Scope isolated include.
 *
 * Prevents access to $this/self from included files.
 */
function includeFile($file)
{
    include $file;
}

autoload-psr规范代码
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